## Dr. Wendy Smith

Associate Director, Center for Science, Mathematics and Computer Education

Research Associate Professor (Full Research Professor, beginning July 1, 2020)

University of Nebraska-Lincoln

251 Avery Hall

Lincoln, NE 68588-0131 USA

wsmith5 (at) unl (dot) edu

402.472.7259

## About Wendy

Dr. Wendy Smith earned her PhD from the University of Nebraska in 2008, studying mathematics teacher change. Wendy's research interests include PK-20 mathematics, science and computer science education, institutional change, active learning, education leadership, rural education, teacher change, teacher professional development, professional networks, action research, and estimating teacher professional learning effects on student achievement. Wendy began her career as a middle level mathematics teacher in the Lincoln Public Schools. Wendy's bachelor's and master's degrees are in mathematics, also from the University of Nebraska.

Among other roles and responsibilities, Wendy serves as the chief advisor for teachers earning their Master of Arts for Teachers (MAT) degree from the Department of Mathematics. More information about degrees for teachers in general is here, and more information about the MAT degree specifically is here.

## Recent Books

*The First Five Years of Teaching Mathematics (FIRSTMATH): Concepts, Methods & Strategies for Comparative International Research.*Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

This book reports on an innovative study into the first five years of mathematics teaching: FIRSTMATH. For the first time, the study has developed a viable methodology to analyzethe knowledge, skills, and dispositions of beginning mathematics teachers as well as instruments to explore the contexts where they work. The book provides a step by step account of this exploratory (proof-of-concept) research study, using a comparative and international approach, and introduces readers to the challenges entailed. The FIRSTMATH study promises the development of methods and strategies to make it possible for teacher educators and future teachers to examine (and improve on) their own practices in an important STEM area.

As a co-authored book, most of us took the lead on at least one chapter; I wrote the observation chapter and co-wrote the first and last chapters.

This book uses the publicly available TEDS-M data to answer such questions as: How does teacher education contribute to the learning outcomes of future teachers? Are there programs that are more successful than others in helping teachers learn to teach mathematics? How does the local and national policy environment contribute to teacher education outcomes? It invites readers to explore these questions across a large number of international settings.

As a member of the editing team, I co-wrote the section introduction chapters. I also co-authored two of the research study chapters: one focused on teacher beliefs and the other on opportunities to learn.

This book relates how a national Networked Improvement Community (NIC) has been working together on improving secondary mathematics teacher preparation. The Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership formed in 2012, and operates as a NIC, with members working collectively in research action clusters, as well as locally on program transformation efforts.

As a member of the editorial team, I helped to write four chapters and the section introductions; I led the writing team for the chapter about the Active Learning Mathematics Research Action Cluster.

## Belief Statement

I believe learning needs to be active, and that it is time to revitalize how we educate people to become mathematics teachers. Preservice teachers need longer classroom internships, and more mathematics classes specifically designed for teachers; preservice teacher education should align with the 2017 Association of Teachers of Mathematics' *Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Mathematics*. At the undergraduate level, instructor preparation and teaching should align with the MAA's *Instructional Practices Guide*. Mathematics teachers need to have very strong mathematical knowledge for teaching, knowing mathematics, teaching, and students deeply. Mathematics teachers need to see mathematics as inter-connected, and to intentionally support students in making those connections. Mathematics teachers need well-developed mathematical habits of mind, and the goal of teaching mathematics should be to help students develop these habits of mind of mathematical thinkers. I see the overall goal of mathematics education as being the tool to develop reasoning and sense-making in students. It is important for elementary teachers to be trained as mathematics specialists, since elementary mathematics comprise so much more than learning to add, subtract, multiply, and divide.

## Current and Past Projects

**Change in Departments and Institutions via Active Learning (Change DIAL)**, NSF IUSE (PI Wendy Smith; Co-PIs Lindsay Augustyn, UNL; Chris Rasmussen, San Diego State University; David Webb, University of Colorado Boulder). 4/15/2020-3/31/2021, $99,791. This conference grant was intended to support an in-person conference in Lincoln, NE in June 2020. However, given the global pandemic, the plans have shifted to a summer 2021 conference. The conference has three central goals: Connect conference participants to an existing community of mathematics faculty, researchers, and administrators dedicated to educational innovation in Precalculus through Calculus 2 courses. (2) Leverage these connections to share and generate knowledge of strategies for initiating, implementing, and sustaining cultural change that supports the improvement of courses in the calculus sequence. (3) Foster instructor development by encouraging participants to share highly effective instructional practices and tasks for an active learning classroom.- STEM Career Opportunities in Nebraska: Networks, Experiential-learning and Computational Thinking (STEM CONNECT), NSF S-STEM (PI Jim Lewis; Co-PIs Wendy Smith, Petronela Radu, Brittney Sharif, Amy Goodburn). 10/1/2019-9/30/2024, $3,580,869. This scholarship grant for undergraduate STEM majors features a partnership with two of Nebraska’s community colleges (Southeast and Western Nebraska). With a focus on supporting high-need students at the beginning of their college career as well as their transition from community college to four-year programs, the project features special sections of mathematics and computer science courses for cohort participants to build their computational thinking skills. Community college students awarded scholarships from STEM CONNECT are guaranteed continuing scholarships if they complete their bachelor's degree at UNL, majoring in a STEM subject.
- Innovating Life Sciences Education through Computational Modeling and Simulations, NSF I-USE (PI Tomas Helikar; Co-PIs Wendy Smith, Joe Dauer). 10/1/2019-9/30/2024, $1,896,570. This institutional transformation grant seeks to scale up the practices of modeling and simulation in undergraduate life sciences courses, using the Cell Collective platform.
- Persistence, Effectiveness and Retention Studies in STEM Teaching (PERSIST), 1/1/2019-12/31/2020, $392,264. PI for UNL; collaborative PIs Hannah Sevian, University of Massachusetts Boston, Gillian Roehrig, University of Minnesota. This collaborative grant funds workshops for current and potential future Noyce Track 4 PIs, to help foster collaborative research related to STEM teacher preparation, effectiveness and retention.
- Computer Science for All: Adapt, Implement and Research at Nebraska (AIR@NE), 10/1/2018-9/30/2022, $2,000,000. PI: Leen-Kiat Soh; Co-PIs: Wendy Smith, Gwen Nugent, Guy Trainin; Kent Steen (LPS). This grant funds K-8 teacher professional development in computer science and how to teach computer science, with a goal of developing teacher leaders in computer science across the state. The project also has a research component to understand how to better prepare K-8 teachers to effectively teach computer science to students, thereby broadening participation by K-12 students in computer science.
- NIC-Transform: Using Networked Improvement Communities to Design and Implement Program Transformation Tools for Secondary Mathematics Teacher Preparation, 10/1/2018-9/30/2020, $150,000. PI for UNL; collaborative grant from the National Science Foundation (DUE-1834551, 1834539), with W. Gary Martin (Auburn University) and Margaret Mohr-Schroeder (University of Kentucky). This collaborative research grant is an exploration and design tier for institution and community transformation, and is focused on supporting and studying the challenging work of transformation of secondary mathematics teacher preparation programs, meeting the national vision put forward by the Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators (AMTE, 2017) and other organizations (Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences [CBMS], 2012; Franklin et al., 2015). This project builds upon extensive work undertaken by the Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership, a consortium of over 90 universities and their school partners, which was launched in 2012 by the APLU to address significant problems in improving the quality and quantity of secondary mathematics teachers. A key focus of this grant is the development and testing of a knowledge generating and management system, to document what sites are doing, learning from each other, and refine efforts.
- Worlds of Connections: Engaging Youth with Health Research through Network Science and Stories in Augmented Reality, 9/1/2018-7/31/2023, $1,235,707. Senior Personnel. PI: Julia McQuillan. Worlds of Connections (WOC) is an informal science learning research project that is funded by a National Institute of Health (NIH) Science Education Project Award (SEPA). Our long term goal is to enhance the diversity of the bio-behavioral and biomedical workforce by increasing interest in Network Science among members of underrepresented minority communities and to promote public understanding of the benefits of NIH-funded research for public health.
- Teacher Leadership: Investigating Trajectories and Persistence, 6/8/2018-6/7-2021, $1,500,000. PI for UNL; collaborative grant from the National Science Foundation (DUE-1758462, 1758342, 1758438, and 1758452) with Greg Rushton (SUNY Stony Brook/Middle Tennessee State University), Brett Criswell (University of Kentucky), Jan Yow (University of South Carolina) and Christine Lotter (University of South Carolina). This collaborative research grant is collecting data from eight Noyce projects that fund Master Teaching Fellowships. We are exploring the relative influences of a variety of contextual factors on teachers' leadership trajectories and persistence as teachers in high-need schools.
- NebraskaSTEM, 3/1/2018-2/28/2023, $1,500,000. Co-PI, with PI Amanda Thomas and Co-PIs Leen-Kiat Soh and Guy Trainin, UNL. Noyce Master Teaching Fellow (track 3) grant from the National Science Foundation (DUE-1758496). This grant funds 15 elementary STEM Master Teaching Fellows to first earn a master's degree from UNL focused on elementary STEM integration and leadership, and then to engage in leadership activities from their positions as elementary teachers in high-need Nebraska districts.
- Midwest Regional Noyce Dialog, AAAS (as a subaward to a Noyce grant from NSF), 5/1/2017-7/31-2017, $50,000. PI. With Co-PIs Sharon Vestal, South Dakota State University and Lindsay Augustyn at UNL. We were invited to submit this proposal to host one of six AAAS-sponsored regional dialogues about preservice STEM teacher education.
- Student Engagement in Mathematics through an Institutional Network for Active Learning (SEMINAL), National Science Foundation collaborative award DUE-1624643 ($398,904 for Nebraska; $3,600,000 overall award), 9/1/2016-2/28/2022. PI. With Co-PIs Allan Donsig and Nathan Wakefield at UNL; collaborator institution PIs Howard Gobstein (APLU), Robert Tubbs (U. Colorado-Boulder), and Chris Rasmussen (San Diego State U.). A fundamental goal of the project is to develop a better understanding of how to enact and support institutional change for implementing active learning mathematics in undergraduate learning environments. This project will investigate environments at six institutions that have successfully improved student learning in the Precalculus-to-Calculus 2 (P2C2) sequence by employing active learning in mathematics, as well as nine other institutions in the process of institutionalizing active learning. Supplemental funding awarded in 2020 will allow the SEMINAL team to better capture sustainability, and to collect data from additional sites. The results of this work will lead to important strategies for adapting, implementing, supporting, and assessing ALM in P2C2 courses.
- Nebraska Partnership TEAMS: Teaching to Enhance Achievement in Math and Science, Department of Education Math Science Partnership, $1,062,400, 8/5/2016-7/31/2018. PI. With Co-PIs: Leilani Arthurs, Ruth Heaton, Michelle Homp, Yvonne Lai, Elizabeth Lewis, Lorraine Males, Mindi Searls, Amanda Thomas, Julie Thomas. This service grant allows us, in cooperation with a corps of teacher leaders, to create and offer professional development to K-12 math and science teachers statewide (at multiple locations) in summer 2017 and across the 2017/18 school year. The project will also seek to strengthen the statewide professional community of K-12 math and science teachers.
- UNL-LPS Title I Professional Development Partnership, 2014-2017, Lincoln Public Schools Title I Professional Development Funds (4 one-year grants, May 2014-Aug 2017), $538,246 (2014), $553,196 (2015), $219,007 (2016), $28,178 (2017). These grants are for UNL and LPS to partner in offering one cohort each of Primarily Math (grades K-3) and Math in the Middle (grades 4-8) to teachers in LPS Title I buildings. The 2016 and 2017 awards include funds for teachers in grades 4-6 at Title I buildings to take one mathematics course for teachers.
- Women in Science, 2017, NSF-EPSCoR, $20,000, 1/1/2017-6/30/2018. These funds support an annual event for high school girls to come to Lincoln, Nebraska for a 2-day conference, Women in Science. Starting with a plenary speaker by a female scientist, the workshop is mostly hands-on sessions the girls attend both on and off campus to engage in scientific activities.
- Active Learning Mathematics Research Action Cluster. Association of Public Land-grant Universities (APLU), $70,283, 12/2013-3/2015. Co-PI. PI: Jim Lewis, Co-PI Allan Donsig. This grant is a subaward to the larger, $1,049,368 grant awarded to APLU, PIs Howard Gobstein and Gary Martin, from the Helmsley Charitable Trust. This pilot project research grant studies reforms to college freshmen-level mathematics courses. Five universities are collaborating on this project. This project is part of the larger Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership project.
- NebraskaNOYCE Phase II, National Science Foundation, DUE 1439867 $299,878, 9/1/2014-8/31/2017. PI. With Co-PIs: Yvonne Lai, Lorraine Males. This research grant allows us to conduct research about the impact of the Noyce Master Teaching Fellows and Teaching Fellows supported by the NebraskaNOYCE grant.
- Midwest Regional Robert Noyce Connections 2014-2016, National Science Foundation, DUE 1405512 $799,420, 2/1/2014-1/31/2017. PI. With Co-PIs: W. Hunter (Illinois State), R. Post (Wittenberg University), Kim Nguyen (IUPUI). This grant is for our team to host the Midwest Regional Noyce Conference, and also to conduct other community-building and informational activities throughout 2014 and 2015, including webinars, local workshops, and building an online community among Noyce project personnel and Noyce Scholars in 15 Midwest states. In 2016, the Midwest Regional Noyce Conference was held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
- Actively Learning Mathematics Research Action Cluster. The Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU) has funded this 16-month (Dec 2013-March 2015), $70,283 pilot project to study reforms to college freshmen-level mathematics courses. Five universities are collaborating on this project. The project is part of the Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership.
- Omaha Public Schools Teacher Leader Academy. The NebraskaMATH: Strengthening the OPS-UNL Partnership grant is a $5,455,811 grant from The Sherwood Foundation® and the Lozier Foundation, 5/1/2013-7/31/2016 and $1,829,433, 8/1/2016-8/31/2017. The grant is focused on improving K-12 student mathematics outcomes in OPS through investing in teacher professional development, including five cohorts of primary teachers in Primarily Math, two cohorts of upper elementary teachers in ITEAM, two cohorts of middle level teachers in Math in the Middle, an Algebra Initiative for high school teachers, and ongoing courses for K-12 teachers as part of the Nebraska Math and Science Summer Institutes. The grant also includes a large research project to measure the program impact on teachers and students.
- Data Connections: Developing a Coherent Picture of Mathematics Teaching and Learning, National Science Foundation, $1,264,400, 6/1/10-5/31/15. Co-Principal Investigator. This grant proposes to develop, refine, and disseminate statistical models that develop a coherent picture of mathematics teaching and learning, particularly in regard to Math Science Partnership programs.
- NebraskaNOYCE, National Science Foundation, 3,000,000, 08/15/2010-08/31/2016. Principal Investigator. This grant created Robert Noyce NSF Teacher Scholarship programs both for people to become new secondary mathematics teachers in high need Nebraska secondary schools, and for master mathematics teachers in Nebraska to be funded to further their education and take on added leadership roles in Nebraska mathematics instruction in high need schools.
- NebraskaMATH, National Science Foundation, $9,235,417, 01/01/2009-12/31/2014. Co-Principal Investigator. This grant supports a partnership among UNL, Lincoln Public Schools, Grand Island Public Schools, Papillion-La Vista Public Schools, the Omaha Public Schools and all 14 rural Educational Service Units. The partnership works to educate and support students and teachers at critical junctures, with an overall goal of improving achievement in mathematics for all students and narrowing achievement gaps of at-risk populations. The grant funds three programs: (1) Primarily Math, an initiative for K-3 teachers, (2) Nebraska Algebra, an initiative for Algebra I teachers, and (3) New Teacher Network, an initiative for new secondary teachers of mathematics.
- Nebraska Math and Science Summer Institutes. These summer graduate courses for K-12 math and science teachers are offered on compressed schedules (usually 1- or 2-weeks long) at locations across Nebraska and online.
- Math in the Middle, National Science Foundation, $5,900,000, 2004-2011. Senior Personnel. This grant supported a partnership among UNL, Lincoln Public Schools, Omaha Public Schools, and ESUs 6 and 13. The grant educated and supported teams of outstanding middle-level (grades 5-8) mathematics teachers to become leaders in their schools, districts and Educational Service Units.
- 2012 Learning Network Conference, National Science Foundation, $249,864, 9/1/2011-6/30-2012. Co-PI. This grant was for our team to plan and carry out NSF’s annual Math Science Partnerships Learning Network Conference in Washington, D.C., January 22-24, 2012, and then to oversee a broader dissemination effort of selected conference presentations. A special issue of articles related to Math Science Partnerships was published in July 2013; I was a co-guest editor of the special issue.
- 2011 Learning Network Conference, National Science Foundation, $141,383, 11/15/2010-10/31/2011. Co-PI. This grant was for our team to plan and carry out NSF’s annual Math Science Partnerships Learning Network Conference in Washington, D.C., January 23-25, 2011, and then to oversee a broader dissemination effort of selected conference presentations.

## Publications

- Tatto, M. T., Rodriguez, M. C., Smith, W. M., Reckase, M. D., Bankov, K. & Pippin, J. (2020).
*The First Five Years of Teaching Mathematics (FIRSTMATH): Concepts, Methods & Strategies for Comparative International Research.*Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. - Smith, W. M., Callahan, K., Mingus, T., & Hodge, A. (2020). Active learning mathematics research action cluster. In G. W. Martin, A. Lischka, W. M. Smith and B. R. Lawler (Eds.), The Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership: The power of a networked improvement community to transform secondary mathematics teacher preparation (pp). Volume 4 in B. Benken (Ed.), Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators Professional Book Series. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
- Martin, W. G., Smith, W. M., & Mohr-Schroeder, M. (2020). Program transformation. In G. W. Martin, A. Lischka, W. M. Smith and B. R. Lawler (Eds.), The Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership: The power of a networked improvement community to transform secondary mathematics teacher preparation (pp). Volume 4 in B. Benken (Ed.), Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators Professional Book Series. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
- LeMahieu, P., Smith, W. M., & Davis, A. (2020). Reflections on the MTE-Partnership: The power of networked improvement communities to support transformational change. In G. W. Martin, A. Lischka, W. M. Smith and B. R. Lawler (Eds.), The Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership: The power of a networked improvement community to transform secondary mathematics teacher preparation (pp). Volume 4 in B. Benken (Ed.), Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators Professional Book Series. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
- Apkarian, N., Smith, W. M., Vroom, K., Voigt, M., Gehrtz, J., PtC Project Team, & SEMINAL Project Team (2019). X-PIPS-M Survey Suite.
- Beck, M. F., Albano, A. D., & Smith, W. M. (2018). Person-fit as an index of inattentive responding: A comparison of methods using polytomous survey data. Applied Psychological Measurement. Online first.
- Smith, W. M., Lawler, B., Strayer, J., & Augustyn, L. C. (Eds.) (2018). Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership. Washington, DC: Association of Public and Land-grant Universities.
- Smith, W. M. (2018). NebraskaMATH STEP: Secondary Teacher Education Partnership. In W. M. Smith, B. Lawler, J. Strayer, & L. C. Augustyn (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership (pp. 35-38). Washington, DC: Association of Public and Land-grant Universities.
- Smith, W. M. (2018). Actively learning mathematics. In W. M. Smith, B. Lawler, J. Strayer, & L. C. Augustyn (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership (pp. 57-62). Washington, DC: Association of Public and Land-grant Universities.
- Martin, W. G., & Smith, W. M. (2018). Transformations working group. In W. M. Smith, B. Lawler, J. Strayer, & L. C. Augustyn (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership (pp. 39-44). Washington, DC: Association of Public and Land-grant Universities.
- Tatto, M. T., Smith, W. M., Rodriguez, M. C., Reckase, M., & Bankov, K. (Eds.) (2018). Exploring the Mathematical Education of Teachers Using TEDS-M Data. Springer. Print: 978-3-319-92143-3 eBook: 978-3-319-92144-0
- Kutaka, T. S., Smith, W. M., & Albano, A. D. (2018). Differences in beliefs and knowledge for future teachers: An international study of future teachers. In M. T. Tatto, W. M. Smith, M. C. Rodriguez, M. Reckase and K. Bankov (Eds.) Exploring the Mathematical Education of Teachers Using TEDS-M Data, (pp. 349-378). Switzerland: Springer.
- Kutaka, T. S., Smith, W. M., & Males, L. M. (2018). Exploring mathematical pedagogical content knowledge: An international study of future teachers. In M. T. Tatto, W. M. Smith, M. C. Rodriguez, M. Reckase and K. Bankov (Eds.) Exploring the Mathematical Education of Teachers Using TEDS-M Data, (pp. 279-310). Switzerland: Springer.
- Tatto, M. T., & Smith, W. M. (2018). Introduction: Exploring different dimensions of teacher education programs in the TEDS-M study. In M. T. Tatto, W. M. Smith, M. C. Rodriguez, M. Reckase and K. Bankov (Eds.) Exploring the Mathematical Education of Teachers Using TEDS-M Data, (pp. 17-30). Switzerland: Springer.
- Tatto, M. T., & Smith, W. M. (2018). Introduction: Exploring future teacher characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and opportunities to learn in the TEDS-M study. In M. T. Tatto, W. M. Smith, M. C. Rodriguez, M. Reckase and K. Bankov (Eds.) Exploring the Mathematical Education of Teachers Using TEDS-M Data, (pp. 195-204). Switzerland: Springer.
- Tatto, M. T., & Smith, W. M. (2018). Introduction: Methodological challenges and strategies in the TEDS-M study. In M. T. Tatto, W. M. Smith, M. C. Rodriguez, M. Reckase and K. Bankov (Eds.) Exploring the Mathematical Education of Teachers Using TEDS-M Data, (pp. 479-188). Switzerland: Springer.
- Smith, W. M., Lawler, B., Bowers, J., & Augustyn, L. C. (Eds.) (2017). Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership. Washington, DC: Association of Public and Land-grant Universities.
- Smith, W. M., Webb, D. C., Bowers, J., & Voigt, M. (2017). SEMINAL: Preliminary findings on institutional changes in departments of mathematics. In W. M. Smith, B. Lawler, & J. Bowers (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership. Washington, DC: Association of Public and Land-grant Universities.
- Bowers, J., Smith, W. M., Ren, L., & Hanna, R. (2017). Integrating active learning labs in a college-based pre-calculus lecture class: Measuring the value added. Investigations in Mathematics Learning. DOI 10.1080/19477503.2017.1375355
- Ren, L., & Smith, W. M. (2017). Teacher characteristics and contextual factors: Links to early primary teachers’ mathematical beliefs and attitudes. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education.
- Smith, W. M. (2016). Active learning mathematics at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. In B. R. Lawler, Ronau, R. N., & M. J. Moh-Schroeder (Eds.), Proceedings of the fifth annual Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership conference (pp. 121-128). Washington, DC: Association of Public Land-grant Universities.
- Bowers, J., & Smith, W. M. (2016). Getting college ready for “college ready” students. In B. R. Lawler, Ronau, R. N., & M. J. Moh-Schroeder (Eds.), Proceedings of the fifth annual Mathematics Teacher Education Partnership conference (pp. 116-120). Washington, DC: Association of Public Land-grant Universities.
- Lai, Y., Smith, W. M., Wakefield, N. P. Miller, E. R., St. Goar, J., Groothuis, C. M., & Wells, K. M. (2016). Characterizing mathematics graduate student teaching assistants’ opportunities to learn from teaching. In J. Dewar, P. Hsu, & H. Pollatsek (Eds.) Mathematics education: A spectrum of work in mathematical sciences departments (Chapter 6, pp. 73-88), Association for Women in Mathematics Series. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-44950-0_6
- Wakefield, N., & Smith, W. M. (2016). Enriching Student’s Online Homework Experience in Pre-Calculus Courses: Hints and Cognitive Supports. In Fukawa-Connolly (Ed.), Proceedings of the 19th Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education Conference, Pittsburg, PA.
- Kutaka, T. S., Albano, A. D., Smith, W. M., Edwards, C. P. Ren, L., & Beattie, H. F. (2017). Connecting teacher professional development and student mathematics achievement: A 4-year study of an Elementary Mathematics Specialist Program. Journal of Teacher Education, 68(5), 140-154. DOI 10.1177/0022487116687551 JTE also interviewed us for a blog post related to this manuscript.
- Kutaka, T. S., Ren, L., Smith, W. M., Beattie, H. F., Edwards, C. P., Green, J. L., Chernyavskiy, P., Stroup, W., Heaton, R. M. & Lewis. W. J. (2016). Examining change in K-3 teachers’ mathematical knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs: The case of Primarily Math. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 19(5) [online first]. DOI 10.10007/x10857-016-8355-x
- Males, L. M., Flores, M., Ivins, I., Smith, W. M., Lai, Y., & Swidler, S. A. (2016). Planning with curriculum materials: An analysis of teachers’ attending, interpreting, and responding. In M. B. Wood, E. E. Turner, M. Civil and J. A. Eli (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, (pp. 81-88). Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona.
- Ren, L., Green, J. L., & Smith, W. S. (2016). Using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Inventory with lower primary teachers: An adaptation and validation study. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 28(2), 303-326. DOI 10.1007/s13394-016-0168-0
- Beattie, H., Ren, L., Smith, W. M., & Heaton, R. M. (2017). Measuring elementary mathematics teachers’ noticing: Using child studies as a vehicle. In E. O. Schack, M. H. Fisher, and J. A. Wilhelm (Eds.), Teacher noticing: Bridging and broadening perspectives, contexts and frameworks. Part of the Research in Mathematics Education Monograph series; Springer.
- Aaberg, S., Vitosh, J., & Smith, W. M. (2016). The legend of the Indian wrapper. Mathematics Teacher, 110(2), 134-141.
- Schmid, K. K., Blankenship, E. E., Kerby, A., Green, J. L., & Smith, W. S. (2014). The development and evolution of a course for in-service middle-level mathematics teachers. Journal of Statistics Education, 22(3) [published online first].
- Colton, C., & Smith, W. M. (2014). Successfully transitioning to linear equations. Mathematics Teacher, 107(6), 452-457.
- Ren, L., & Smith, W. M. (2013). Using the Mathematics Belief Scales short form with K-3 teachers: Validating the factor structure. In M. Martinez, & A. Castro Superfine, (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, pp. 857-860. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois at Chicago.
- Smith, W. M., Lewis, W. J., & Heaton, R. M. (2013). Ensuring mathematics learning in rural schools through investments in teacher knowledge. Great Plains Research, 23, 185-197.
- Heaton, R. M., & Smith, W. M. (2013). Developing effective mathematics teachers through National Science Foundation funded Math and Science Partnership grants. The Mathematics Enthusiast, 10(3), 509-518.
- Larson, M. R., & Smith, W. S. (2013). Distributed leadership, professional development, and district coherence: Improving primary students' mathematics achievement. Journal of Mathematics Education at Teachers College, 4, 26-33.
- Smith, W. M., & Heaton, R. M. (2013). Learning from practice about improving the quality of mathematics teacher research. Mathematics Teacher Educator, 1(2), 148-161.
- Heaton, R. M., Lewis, W. J., & Smith, W. M. (2013). The Math in the Middle Institute: Strengthening middle level teachers’ mathematical and pedagogical capacities. In C. Beaver, L. Burton, M. Fung, & K. Kruczek, Eds., Resources for Preparing Middle School Mathematics Teachers, pp. 47-58. MAA Notes Series.
- Heaton, R. M., Lewis, W. J., Homp, M. R., Dunbar, S. R., & Smith, W. M. (2013). Challenging and rigorous yet accessible and relevant mathematics courses for middle level teachers. In C. Beaver, L. Burton, M. Fung, & K. Kruczek, Eds., Resources for Preparing Middle School Mathematics Teachers, pp. 181-201. MAA Notes Series.
- Smith, W. M., Graupner, S., Hayek, L. M., & Welker, J. L. (2012). Essential elements for building community: The New Teacher Network. In California Mathematics Project (Ed.), Monograph: Mathematics Teacher Retention, pp. 124-129. Los Angeles, CA: California Mathematics Project.
- Petit Cunningham, E., Smith, W. M., & Yang, Y. (2012). Exploring the impact of professional development on K-3 teachers’ practices and their students’ understanding. In L. R. Van Zoest, J.-J. Lo, & J. L. Kratky, (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Kalamazoo, MI: Western Michigan University.
- Smith, W. M. (2012). Exploring relationships among teacher change and uses of contexts. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 24(3), 301-321. DOI 10.1007/s13394-012-0053-4
- Heaton, R. M., Lewis, W. J., & Smith, W. M. (2009). Building middle level mathematics teachers’ capacities as teachers and leaders: The Math in the Middle Institute Partnership. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Explorations, 11, 1-18.
- Smith, W. M. (2008). Exploring how three middle level mathematics teachers use their experiences in an ambitious professional development program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lincoln, NE.
- Heaton, R. M., Smith, W. M., Kromminga, R., & Hartman, D. (2008). Understanding the meaning of rural within a middle school mathematics professional development and research project in Nebraska. Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) Working Paper #40.
- Heaton, R. M., Smith, W. M., Kromminga, R., & Hartman, D. (2008). The ambiguity of rural. Rural Mathematics Educator, 7(1).

## Selected Presentations

## Classes

- Math 996/TEAC 999 Graduate Reading Course/doctoral seminar (mathematics education research)
- Math 896 Capstone Course: Math in the Middle
- EDPS 892 Introduction to Assessment for Teachers
- TEAC 800 Inquiry into Teaching and Learning
- TEAC 801 Curriculum Inquiry
- TEAC 808J Middle Level Teaching and Learning Using Mathematical Trajectories
- TEAC 888 Teacher as Scholarly Practitioner
- TEAC 889 Master’s Seminar/Math in the Middle Capstone Course
- TEAC 890 Responsive Instruction in the Elementary Mathematics Classroom
- TEAC 923 Mathematics Education Seminar: Research in Teaching and Learning
- TEAC 949A Mathematics Education Seminar: Trends and Issues in Mathematics Teaching and Learning